Volume 5, Issue 4 (Autumn 2017-- 2017)                   PCP 2017, 5(4): 271-280 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Valikhani A, Aflakseir A, Hashemi R, Fathi M, Momeni H, Abbasi Z. The Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Early Maladaptive Schema With Suicide Ideation in Iranian Late Adolescents. PCP 2017; 5 (4) :271-280
URL: http://jpcp.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-454-en.html
1- Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. , valikhani88@gmail.com
2- Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
3- Department of Psychiatry, Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
4- Department of General Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanity Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
5- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (6999 Views)
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prediction of suicide ideation based on early maladaptive schemas and the Big-Five personality traits in a sample of Iranian late adolescents. 
Methods: 315 high school students (160 female, 155 male) were recruited by multi-stage cluster sampling method from Shiraz city. Participants completed NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Schema Questionnaire, and Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis.
Results: showed that early maladaptive schema significantly predicted suicide ideation beyond personality traits and demographic variables (∆R2=0.02, P<0.01). Additionally, among early maladaptive schema domains, disconnection and rejection (β=0.25, P=0.003), in a positive way, and over-vigilance and inhibition (β=-0.17, P=0.011) domains, in a negative way, predicted suicide ideation beyond personality traits and demographic variables. 
Conclusion: The study showed that schema therapy approach can address particular domains of early maladaptive schemas (disconnection and rejection) for preventing or treating suicide ideation in adolescents regardless of their personality traits and demographic variables. Additionally, the relationship between early maladaptive schema on the one hand, and the NEO Five-Factor model and the basic and clinical application schema therapy, on the other hand, is discussed in detail.
Full-Text [PDF 530 kb]   (2583 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (3011 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychiatry
Received: 2017/03/23 | Accepted: 2017/07/10 | Published: 2017/10/1

1. Ahmadian Gorji, M., Fata, L., Asgharnejad Farid, & Malakoti, S. K. (2009). [A comparison of the early maladaptive schemas of suicidal and non-suicidal depressed patients with non-clinical sample (Persian)]. Advances in Cognitive Science, 10(4), 49-59.
2. Anisi, J., Fathi, A. A., Salimi, S., & Ahmadi, N. K. (2005). [Validity and reliability of Beck suicide scale ideation among soldiers (Persian)]. Journal of Military Medicine, 7(1), 33-37.
3. Anisi, J., Majdiyan, M., Joshanloo, M., & Ghoharikamel, Z. (2011). [Validity and reliability of NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) on university students (Persian)]. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 351-355.‏
4. Beck, A. T. (1996). Beyond belief: A theory of modes, personality, and psychopathology. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy (pp. 1-25). New York: Guilford.
5. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1991). Manual for the Beck scale for suicide ideation. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.‏
6. Bertolotei, J. M., Fleischmanni, A., De Leo, D., Bolhari, J., Botega, N., De Sil, D., et al. (2005). Suicide attempts, plans, and ideation in culturally diverse sites: The WHO SUPRE-MISS community survey. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1457–65. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705005404 [DOI:10.1017/S0033291705005404]
7. Blüml, V., Kapusta, N. D., Doering, S., Brähler, E., Wagner, B., & Kersting, A. (2013). Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population. PloS ONE, 8(10), e76646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076646 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076646]
8. Chioqueta, A. P., & Stiles, T. C. (2005). Personality traits and the development of depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(6), 1283-1291. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.010 ‏ [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.010]
9. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.
10. Dutra, L., Callahan, K., Forman, E., Mendelsohn, M., & Herman, J. (2008). Core schemas and suicidality in a chronically traumatized population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 71-74. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31815fa4c1 [DOI:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31815fa4c1]
11. Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., et al. (2008). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ, 57(4), 1-131.‏ [PMID]
12. Fialko, L., Freeman, D., Bebbington, P. E., Kuipers, E., Garety, P. A., Dunn, G., et al. (2006). Understanding suicidal ideation in psychosis: findings from the Psychological Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis (PRP) trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(3), 177-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00849.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00849.x]
13. Ghiasi, M. (2011). [Normalization, validation and reliability of the Young Schema Questionnaire (third version of short form) in two groups of normal individuals and patients with mental disorders in Tehran (MSc. thesis) (Persian)]. Isfahan: Isfahan University.
14. Kay, N. S., Jantaraweragul, S., Kanungsukkasem, V., Li, K., Jones, M. R., & Huang, Y. (2012). Suicide ideation associations with attitudes toward suicide, quality of life, and attitudes toward death and dying among Chinese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese high school seniors. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2), 192.‏ [DOI:10.5539/jel.v1n2p192]
15. Kerby, D. S. (2003). CART analysis with unit-weighted regression to predict suicidal ideation from Big Five traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(2), 249-261. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00174-5 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00174-5]
16. Kjøller, M., & Helweg-Larsen, M. (2000). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adult Danes. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 28(1), 54-61. PMID: 10817315 https://doi.org/10.1080/713797371 [DOI:10.1177/140349480002800110] [PMID]
17. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2003). Personality in adulthood: A five-factor theory perspective, (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. [DOI:10.4324/9780203428412]
18. Muris, P. (2006). Maladaptive schemas in non-clinical adolescents: Relations to perceived parental rearing behaviours, big five personality factors and psychopathological symptoms. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13, 405-13. [DOI:10.1002/cpp.506]
19. Muula, A. S., Kazembe, L. N., Rudatsikira, E., & Siziya, S. (2007). Suicidal ideation and associated factors among in-school adolescents in Zambia. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 9(3), 202-206. PMID: 18087900
20. Nicholson, S., Jenkins, R., & Meltzer, H. (2009). Suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and self-harm. In McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., & Jenkins, R. (Eds.). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007: Results of a Household Survey (pp. 71-87). London: The NHS Information Centre for health and social care.
21. Renner, F., Lobbestael, J., Peeters, F., Arntz, A., & Huibers, M. (2012). Early maladaptive schemas in depressed patients: Stability and relation with depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 581-590.‏ doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.027 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.027]
22. Robbins, M & Francis, L. J. (2009). The spiritual revolution and suicidal ideation: an empirical enquiry among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in England and Wales. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 14(3), 261-272. doi: 10.1080/13644360903086539 [DOI:10.1080/13644360903086539]
23. Sava, F. A. (2009). Maladaptive schemas, irrational beliefs, and their relationship with the five-factor personality model. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 9, 135-147.
24. Singh, R., & Joshi, H. L. (2008). Suicidal ideation in relation to depression, life stress and personality among college students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34(2), 259-265.‏
25. Suicide Prevention Resource Center [SPRC]. (2012). Glossary [Internet]. Retrieved from: http://www.sprc.org/basics/glossary
26. Thimm, J. C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: A five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 373-380. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.03.009] [PMID]
27. Velting, D. M. (1999). Suicidal ideation and the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 943–952. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00046-X [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00046-X]
28. Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Czarlinski, J., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R. E., & Craske, M. (2011). Prospective predictors of suicidal ideation during depressive episodes among older adolescents and young adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(8), 1202-1207. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.008]
29. Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, G. J., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H. G., Joyce, P. R., et al. (1999). Prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in nine countries. Psychological Medicine, 29(1), 9-17. PMID: 10077289 [DOI:10.1017/S0033291798007867] [PMID]
30. Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach, (3rd Ed.). Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press.
31. Young, J. E., & Brown, G. (1999). Young Schema Questionnaire. In J. E. Young, Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Schema-Focused Approach (3rd Ed.) (pp. 59-68). Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press.
32. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-003-0073-1 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9614(03)00129-0 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-003-0064-2 [DOI:10.1016/j.jct.2003.07.002]
33. Zhang, J., & Tao, M. (2013). Relative deprivation and psychopathology of Chinese college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 903–07. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.013 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.013]
34. Zhang, J., Stewart, R., Phillips, M., Shi, Q., & Prince, M. (2009). Pesticide exposure and suicidal ideation in rural communities in Zhejiang province, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(10), 745-753. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.08.054122] [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb