Volume 6, Issue 3 (Summer 2018)                   PCP 2018, 6(3): 183-190 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bahri M, Bahri M. Comparison of Episodic Future Thinking and Working Memory in Adolescents With Internalizing Problems and Non-clinical Adolescents. PCP. 2018; 6 (3) :183-190
URL: http://jpcp.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-527-en.html
1- MSc in Cognitive Science, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
Abstract:   (636 Views)
Objective: The present study aimed to compare the adolescents with internalizing problems and non-clinical adolescents with respect to their episodic future thinking (EFT) and working memory (WM). Furthermore, this study examined the role of WM in the prediction of EFT.
Methods: This cross-sectional study encompassed a population of female students studying in third grade in Azarshahr Girl’s High Schools (East Azerbaijan Province) in the academic year of 2015-2016. Using multistage cluster sampling method, 40 adolescents with internalizing problems and 42 non-clinical adolescents were selected. The participants were asked to fill out the autobiographical and WM tasks and depression, anxiety, and stress scale. The study hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of variance test (MANOVA) and the multiple regression analysis by SPSS V. 22 at P<0.05.
Results: The results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding WM and subscales of future specificity and future details (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding future fluency subscale (P<0.05). The current results also showed that working memory predicts EFT (β=-0.19; P<0.01). 
Conclusion: The EFT impairment and WM deficits are associated with internalizing problems. Thus, internalizing problems are associated with cognitive dysfunction.
Full-Text [PDF 641 kb]   (222 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (111 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Cognitive behavioral
Received: 2017/11/18 | Accepted: 2018/06/9 | Published: 2018/07/1

1. Anderson, R. J., & Evans, G. L. (2015). Mental time travel in dysphoria: Differences in the content and subjective experience of past and future episodes. Consciousness and Cognition, 37, 237-248. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2014.05.006] [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2014.05.006]
2. Atance, C. M., & O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(12), 533-39. [DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01804-0] [DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01804-0]
3. Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-23. [DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2] [DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2]
4. Bahri, M., Ahmadi, E., & Bahri, M. (2015). [Working memory function in state and trait anxiety: Attentional control theory (Persian)]. Shenakht Journal of Psychology & Psychiatry, 2(3), 29-39.
5. Bahri, M., & Bahri, M. (2016). [The investigation of the role of executive functions (working memory and inhibition) in predicting the event-based and time-based prospective memory of the adolescents (Persian)]. Shenakht Journal of Psychology & Psychiatry, 3(3), 28-39.
6. Bahri, M. (2016). [The role of executive functions, theory of mind, episodic future thoughts and creativity in predicting adolescents prospective memory (Persian)] [MA Thesis]. Tabriz: Azarbayjan Shahid Madani University.
7. Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: Implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3-4), 296-312. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01611.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01611.x]
8. D'Argembeau, A., Ortoleva, C., Jumentier, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2010). Component processes underlying future thinking. Memory & Cognition, 38(6), 809-19. [DOI:10.3758/MC.38.6.809] [DOI:10.3758/MC.38.6.809]
9. Daughters, S. B., Gorka, S. M., Magidson, J. F., Macpherson, L., & Seitz-Brown, C. J. (2013). The role of gender and race in the relation between adolescent distress tolerance and externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1053-65. [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.08.008] [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.08.008]
10. Dere, E., Pause, B. M., & Pietrowsky, R. (2010). Emotion and episodic memory in neuropsychiatric disorders. Behavioural Brain Research, 215(2), 162-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.03.017] [DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.03.017]
11. Francis, G., Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. (2000). The cognitive psychology online laboratory. In M. H. Birnbaum (Ed.), Psychological experiments on the Internet (pp. 267-83). Cambridge: Academic Press. [DOI:10.1016/B978-012099980-4/50012-5]
12. Gott, C., & Lah, S. (2014). Episodic future thinking in children compared to adolescents. Child Neuropsychol, 20(5), 625-40. [DOI:10.1080/09297049.2013.840362] [DOI:10.1080/09297049.2013.840362]
13. Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., Vann, S. D., & Maguire, E. A. (2007). Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(5), 1726-31. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.0610561104] [DOI:10.1073/pnas.0610561104]
14. Hill, P. F., & Emery, L. J. (2013). Episodic future thought: Contributions from working memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3), 677-83. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2013.04.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2013.04.002]
15. Hubbard, N. A., Hutchison, J. L., Hambrick, D. Z., & Rypma, B. (2016). The enduring effects of depressive thoughts on working memory. Journal of Affective Disorders, 190(Supplement C), 208-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.06.056] [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.06.056]
16. Hubbard, N. A., Hutchison, J. L., Turner, M., Montroy, J., Bowles, R. P., & Rypma, B. (2016). Depressive thoughts limit working memory capacity in dysphoria. Cognition & Emotion, 30(2), 193-209. [DOI:10.1080/02699931.2014.991694] [DOI:10.1080/02699931.2014.991694]
17. Kerestes, R., Davey, C. G., Stephanou, K., Whittle, S., & Harrison, B. J. (2014). Functional brain imaging studies of youth depression: A systematic review. NeuroImage: Clinical, 4, 209-231. [DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.11.009] [DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.11.009]
18. Kizilbash, A. H., Vanderploeg, R. D., & Curtiss, G. (2002). The effects of depression and anxiety on memory performance. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17(1), 57-67. [DOI:10.1016/S0887-6177(00)00101-3] [DOI:10.1016/S0887-6177(00)00101-3]
19. Lemogne, C., Piolino, P., Friszer, S., Claret, A., Girault, N., Jouvent, R., et al. (2006). Episodic autobiographical memory in depression: Specificity, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(2), 258-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2005.07.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2005.07.005]
20. Lösel, F., & Stemmler, M. (2012). Continuity and patterns of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in girls: A variable-and person-oriented study from preschool to youth age. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 54(3), 307.
21. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335-43. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U] [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U]
22. MacLeod, A. K., & Byrne, A. (1996). Anxiety, depression, and the anticipation of future positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(2), 286-9. [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.105.2.286] [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.105.2.286]
23. Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication--Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017] [DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017]
24. Miloyan, B., Bulley, A., & Suddendorf, T. (2016). Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 4-22. [DOI:10.1111/bjc.12080] [DOI:10.1111/bjc.12080]
25. Moran, T. P. (2016). Anxiety and working memory capacity: A meta-analysis and narrative review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 142(8), 831-64. [DOI:10.1037/bul0000051] [DOI:10.1037/bul0000051]
26. Rabinowitz, J. A., Osigwe, I., Drabick, D. A. G., & Reynolds, M. D. (2016). Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 53(Supplement C), 116-126. [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.09.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.09.007]
27. Sahebi, A., Asghari, M. J., & Salari, R. S. (2005). [Validation of depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population (Persian)]. Iranian Psychologists, 4(1), 299-313.
28. Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R., & Buckner, R. L. (2008). Episodic simulation of future events: concepts, data, and applications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124(1), 39-60. [DOI:10.1196/annals.1440.001] [DOI:10.1196/annals.1440.001]
29. Spreng, R. N., Mar, R. A., & Kim, A. S. (2009). The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(3), 489-510. [DOI:10.1162/jocn.2008.21029] [DOI:10.1162/jocn.2008.21029]
30. Stöber, J. (2000). Prospective cognitions in anxiety and depression: Replication and methodological extension. Cognition and Emotion, 14(5), 725-9. [DOI:10.1080/02699930050117693] [DOI:10.1080/02699930050117693]
31. Szpunar, K. K., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Get real: Effects of repeated simulation and emotion on the perceived plausibility of future experiences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 323-7. [DOI:10.1037/a0028877] [DOI:10.1037/a0028877]
32. Tse, C. S., & Altarriba, J. (2007). Testing the associative-link hypothesis in immediate serial recall: Evidence from word frequency and word imageability effects. Memory, 15(6), 675-90. [DOI:10.1080/09658210701467186] [DOI:10.1080/09658210701467186]
33. Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 1-25. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114] [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114]
34. Van Daele, T., Griffith, J. W., Van den Bergh, O., & Hermans, D. (2014). Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts changes in depression in a community sample. Cognition & Emotion, 28(7), 1303-12. [DOI:10.1080/02699931.2013.879052] [DOI:10.1080/02699931.2013.879052]
35. Williams, J. M., Ellis, N. C., Tyers, C., Healy, H., Rose, G., & MacLeod, A. K. (1996). The specificity of autobiographical memory and imageability of the future. Memory & Cognition, 24(1), 116-25. [DOI:10.3758/BF03197278] [PMID] [DOI:10.3758/BF03197278]
36. Wingenfeld, K., & Wolf, O. T. (2014). Stress, memory, and the hippocampus. In K. Szabo., M. G. Hennerici (Eds.), The Hippocampus in clinical neuroscience (pp. 109-120). Basel: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. [DOI:10.1159/000356423] [DOI:10.1159/000356423]
37. Wu, J. Q., Szpunar, K. K., Godovich, S. A., Schacter, D. L., & Hofmann, S. G. (2015). Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 36, 1-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.09.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.09.005]
38. Zahn Waxler, C., Klimes Dougan, B., & J. Slattery, M. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3), 443-66. [DOI:10.1017/S0954579400003102] [DOI:10.1017/S0954579400003102]
39. Zlomuzica, A., Dere, D., Machulska, A., Adolph, D., Dere, E., & Margraf, J. (2014). Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 131. [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00131] [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00131]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb