Volume 6, Issue 4 (Autumn 2018)                   PCP 2018, 6(4): 223-230 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yousefi R, Seyed Hashemi S G, Sohrabi L, Hossein Abadi M. The Association Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Defense Styles With Hoarding Behaviour Among University Students. PCP. 2018; 6 (4) :223-230
URL: http://jpcp.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-524-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.
Abstract:   (491 Views)
Objective: Individuals suffering from hoarding disorder tend to collect objects, belongings, and riches excessively. They are not able to or do not want to throw away the throng of worthless and useless items they have aggregated. Some psychological factors, especially maladaptive schemas and immature defense mechanisms can play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of hoarding disorder. In this regard, the present study investigates the predictive role and relationship of early maladaptive schemas and defense styles in hoarding behaviours in students.
Methods: The present study was a population-based cross-sectional study carried out on 300 students (149 females and 151 males) of the Payame Noor University of Khoy City, Iran in the academic year 2016-2017. All participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form, the Defense Style Questionnaire, and the Saving Inventory-Revised. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression.
Results: The results showed a significant correlation between early maladaptive schemas and defense styles with hoarding disorder. Also, all three defense styles (mature, neurotic, and immature) (R2=12%), and the domains of Impaired autonomy/performance and impaired limits (R2=17%) could predict the hoarding disorder in students.
Conclusion: Considering the study result, it can be useful to set up cognitive behavioural and dynamic treatment interventions aiming at early maladaptive schemas and defense mechanisms in individuals suffering from hoarding disorder.
Full-Text [PDF 644 kb]   (156 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (8 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Cognitive behavioral
Received: 2018/04/29 | Accepted: 2018/07/25 | Published: 2018/10/1

1. Afzali, M. H., Fathi Ashtiani, A., & Azad Fallah. P. (2008). [The Study of defense styles & mechanisms in patients with Obsessive -compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder & social phobia disorder (Persian)]. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 79-93. [DOI:10.22075/JCP.2017.1999]
2. Ahi, Gh., Mohammadifar, M. A., & Besharat, M. A. (2007). [The psychometric properties of Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) (Persian)]. Psychology & Educational Science, 37(3), 5-20.
3. Albucher, R. C., Abelson, J. L., & Nesse, R. M. (1998). Defense mechanism changes in successfully treated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(4), 558-9. [DOI:10.1176/ajp.155.4.558] [DOI:10.1176/ajp.155.4.558]
4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Washington, D. C.: American Psychiatric Pub. [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
5. Andrews, G., Singh, M., & Bond, M. (1993). The Defense Style Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181(4), 246-56. [DOI:10.1097/00005053-199304000-00006] [PMID] [DOI:10.1097/00005053-199304000-00006]
6. Atalay, H., Atalay, F., Karahan, D., & Caliskan, M. (2008). Early maladaptive schemas activated in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 12(4), 268-79. [DOI:10.1080/13651500802095004] [DOI:10.1080/13651500802095004]
7. Ayers, C. R., Wetherell, J. L., Golshan, S., & Saxena. S. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for geriatric compulsive hoarding. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(10), 689-94. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2011.07.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2011.07.002]
8. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
9. Besharat, M. A., Sharifi, M., & Irwani, M. (2001). [An investigation of the relationship between attachment styles and defense mechanisms (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology, 5(3), 277-89.
10. Bond, M., Gardner, S. T., Christian, J., & Sigal, J. J. (1983). Empirical study of self-rated defense styles. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(3), 333-8. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790030103013] [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790030103013]
11. Canale, A., & Klontz, B. (2013). Hoarding disorder: It's more than just an obsession-implications for financial therapists and planners. Journal of Financial Therapy, 4(2), 4. [DOI:10.4148/1944-9771.1053] [DOI:10.4148/1944-9771.1053]
12. Cramer, P. (2000). Defense mechanisms in psychology today: Further processes for adaptation. American Psychologist, 55(6), 637-46. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.637] [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.637]
13. Frost, R. O., & Gross, R. C. (1993). The hoarding of possessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(4), 367-81. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(93)90094-B] [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(93)90094-B]
14. Frost, R. O., & Hartl, T. L. (1996). A cognitive-behavioral model of compulsive hoarding. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(4), 341-50. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(95)00071-2] [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(95)00071-2]
15. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Tolin, D. F. (2011). Comorbidity in hoarding disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 28(10), 876-84. [DOI:10.1002/da.20861] [DOI:10.1002/da.20861]
16. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Williams, L. (2000). Hoarding: A community health problem. Health & Social Care in the Community, 8(4), 229-34. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00245.x] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00245.x]
17. Johansen, P. Ø., Krebs, T. S., Svartberg, M., Stiles, T. C., & Holen, A. (2011). Change in defense mechanisms during short-term dynamic and cognitive therapy in patients with cluster C personality disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(9), 712-5. [DOI:10.1097/NMD.0b013e318229d6a7] [DOI:10.1097/NMD.0b013e318229d6a7]
18. Kennedy, T., & O'Neill, l. (2012). Elder care: A resource for interprofessional providers: Hoarding Disorder. ELDER CARE. Retrieved from: https://aging.arizona.edu/sites/default/files/fact-sheet-pdfs/hoarding_disorder_1.pdf
19. Kim, J. E., Lee, S. W., & Lee, S. J. (2014). Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and symptom dimensions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 215(1), 134-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.036] [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.036]
20. Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3) 607-10. [DOI:10.1177/001316447003000308] [DOI:10.1177/001316447003000308]
21. Maier, T. (2004). On phenomenology and classification of hoarding: A review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(5), 323-37. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00402.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00402.x]
22. Mataix Cols, D., Frost, R. O., Pertusa, A., Clark, L. A., Saxena, S., Leckman, J. F., et al. (2010). Hoarding disorder: A new diagnosis for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27(6), 556-72. [DOI:10.1002/da.20693] [DOI:10.1002/da.20693]
23. Mohammadzadeh, A. (2009). [Validation of Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R): Compulsive hoarding measure (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 15(1), 33-41.
24. Pertusa, A., Fonseca, A. (2014). Hoarding behavior in other disorders. In: R. O. Frost, G. Steketee (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Hoarding and Acquiring. New York: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199937783.013.010] [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199937783.013.010]
25. Shabanpour, R., Zahiroddin, A. R., Janbozorgi, M., & Ghaeli, P. (2012). Assessment of defense styles and mechanisms in Iranian patients suffering from obsessive compulsive or panic disorders versus normal controls using Persian version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 7(1), 31-5. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Taylor, C. D., Bee, P., & Haddock, G. (2017). Does schema therapy change schemas and symptoms? A systematic review across mental health disorders. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90(3), 456-79. [DOI:10.1111/papt.12112] [DOI:10.1111/papt.12112]
27. Tolin, D. F. (2011). Understanding and treating hoarding: A biopsychosocial perspective. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 517-26. [DOI:10.1002/jclp.20795] [DOI:10.1002/jclp.20795]
28. Vaillant, G. E. (1992). Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Washington, D. C.: American Psychiatric Pub.
29. Walburg, V., & Chiaramello, S. (2015). Link between early maladaptive schemas and defense mechanisms. European Review of Applied Psychology, 65(5), 221-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.erap.2015.07.003] [DOI:10.1016/j.erap.2015.07.003]
30. Waller, G., Meyer, C., & Ohanian, V. (2001). Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(2), 137-47. [DOI:10.1023/A:1026487018110] [DOI:10.1023/A:1026487018110]
31. Watson, D. C., & Sinha, B. K. (1998). Gender, age, and cultural differences in the Defense Style Questionnaire‐40. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(1), 67-75. [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199801)54:13.0.CO;2-R] https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199801)54:1<67::AID-JCLP8>3.0.CO;2-R [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199801)54:13.0.CO;2-R]
32. Wheaton, M. G., & Van Meter, A. (2014). Comorbidity in hoarding disorder. In R. O. Frost, & G. Steketee (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hoarding and Acquiring (pp. 75-83). New York: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199937783.013.003] [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199937783.013.003]
33. Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach, Rev. Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.
34. Young, J. E. (1998). Young Schema-Questionnaire Short Form. New York: Cognitive Therapy Centre.
35. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jct.2003.07.002 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-003-0073-1 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-003-0064-2 [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9614(03)00129-0]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb