Volume 5, Issue 4 (Autumn 2017-- 2017)                   PCP 2017, 5(4): 289-296 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- PhD Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (789 Views)

Objective: According to DSM-5, bipolar disorder is a condition in which the patient experiences one or several manic episodes and sometimes major depressive episodes too. The signs and symptoms of the disorders in DSM are generally influenced by cultural and ethnic factors. Therefore, the present study was aimed at identifying the clinical manifestations of mania in bipolar I disorder in Iranian population.
Methods: The present work is a cross-sectional study. The participants included 64 patients in the manic phase of bipolar I disorder who were selected from the Razi psychiatric hospital and the Taleghani Hospital, using a convenience sampling method. The study data were gathered using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS).
Results: According to the findings, the most common signs and symptoms of mania in hospitalized patients with bipolar I disorder included reduced need for sleep (89.1), poor insight (87.5), elevated mood (85.9), talkativeness (79.7), and psychotic features (68.8). The major symptoms of the patients according to DSM-5 criteria included reduced need for sleep (89.1), talkativeness (79.7), and psychomotor agitation (40.6). According to t-test analysis, patients with and without a history of mental disorders did not have significantly different mania scores. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis indicated no significant difference in mania scores based on the age of onset of the disorder, marital status (single, married, divorced, or widow), education level, and number of hospitalizations. The chi-squared test revealed that patients with a lower education level showed more aggressive behaviors.
Conclusion: According to our results, since the response of a patient to a particular treatment is largely influenced by the symptoms of the disorder, clinicians should pay critical attention to the most common signs and symptoms of any mania.

Full-Text [PDF 579 kb]   (362 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (80 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Psychiatry
Received: 2017/03/30 | Accepted: 2017/07/13 | Published: 2017/10/1

1. Akiskal, H. S., Hantouche, E. G., Bourgeois, M. L., Azorin, J. M., Sechter, D., Allilaire, J.F., et al. (1998). Gender, temperament, and the clinical picture in dysphoric mixed mania: Findings from a French national study (EPIMAN). Journal of Affective Disorders, 50(2), 175-186. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00113-x [DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00113-X]
2. Angst, J., Azorin, J. M., Bowden, C. L., Perugi, G., Vieta, E., Gamma, A.,et al. (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of undiagnosed bipolar disorders in patients with a major depressive episode: the BRIDGE study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(8), 791-799. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.87 [DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.87]
3. Antypa, N., & Serretti, A. (2014). Family history of a mood disorder indicates a more severe bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 178-186. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.013 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.013]
4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Missouri: American Psychiatric Pub. [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
5. Barekatain, M., Tavakoli, M., Molavi, H., Maroufi, M., & Salehi, M. (2007). Standardization, reliability and validity of the Young Mania Rating Scale. Psychology, 11(2), 150-166.
6. Carlson, G. A., Bromet, E. J., & Sievers, S. (2000). Phenomenology and outcome of subjects with early-and adult-onset psychotic mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(2), 213-219. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.2.213 [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.2.213]
7. Cassidy, F., & Carroll, B. J. (2001). Frequencies of signs and symptoms in mixed and pure episodes of mania: implications for the study of manic episodes. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 25(3), 659-665. doi: 10.1016/s0278-5846(00)00174-3 [DOI:10.1016/S0278-5846(00)00174-3]
8. Coryell, W., Fiedorowicz, J., Leon, A. C., Endicott, J., & Keller, M. B. (2013). Age of onset and the prospectively observed course of illness in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146(1), 34-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.031 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.031]
9. Eid, L., Heim, K., Doucette, S., McCloskey, S., Duffy, A., & Grof, P. (2013). Bipolar disorder and socioeconomic status: what is the nature of this relationship? International Journal of Bipolar Disorders, 1(1), 9. doi: 10.1186/2194-7511-1-9 [DOI:10.1186/2194-7511-1-9]
10. Gignac, A., McGirr, A., Lam, R. W., & Yatham, L. N. (2015). Course and outcome following a first episode of mania: Four-year prospective data from the Systematic Treatment Optimization Program (STOP-EM). Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, 411-417. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.032 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.032]
11. Goi, P. D., Mosqueiro, B. P., & Cunha, A. B. D. (2009). The impact of marital status in hospitalized patients with bipolar disorder. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 31(4), 394-395. doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462009000400023 [DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462009000400023]
12. Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (2007). Manic-depressive illness: Bipolar disorders and recurrent depression (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
13. Grabe, H. J. (2017). Environment, genes, and mental health anticipation and medicine. Berlin: Springer.
14. Hu, C., Torres, I. J., Qian, H., Wong, H., Halli, P., Dhanoa, T., et al. (2017). Trajectories of body mass index change in first episode of mania: 3-year data from the Systematic Treatment Optimization Program for Early Mania (STOP-EM). Journal of Affective Disorders, 208(15), 291-297. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.048 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.048]
15. Kennedy, N., Boydell, J., Kalidindi, S., Fearon, P., Jones, P. B., Van Os, J., et al. (2005). Gender differences in incidence and age at onset of mania and bipolar disorder over a 35-year period in Camberwell, England. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 257-262. doi: /10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.257 [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.257] [PMID]
16. Kroon, J. S., Wohlfarth, T. D., Dieleman, J., Sutterland, A. L., Storosum, J. G., Denys, D., et al. (2013). Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: A population-based cohort study. Bipolar Disorders, 15(3), 306-313. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12058 [DOI:10.1111/bdi.12058]
17. Lieberman, D. Z., Massey, S. H., & Goodwin, F. K. (2010). The role of gender in single vs married individuals with bipolar disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 380-385. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.10.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.10.004]
18. Meade, C. S., Fitzmaurice, G. M., Sanchez, A. K., Griffin, M. L., McDonald, L. J., & Weiss, R. D. (2011). The relationship of manic episodes and drug abuse to sexual risk behavior in patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders: a 15-month prospective analysis. AIDS and Behavior, 15(8), 1829-33. doi: 10.1007/s10461-010-9814-9 [DOI:10.1007/s10461-010-9814-9]
19. McElroy, S. L., Strakowski, S. M., Keck, P. E., Tugrul, K. L., West, S. A., & Lonczak, H. S. (1995). Differences and similarities in mixed and pure mania. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36(3), 187-194. doi: 10.1016/0010-440x(95)90080-f [DOI:10.1016/0010-440X(95)90080-F]
20. Mohammad-Khani P, J., M., Jahani Tabesh, A., & Tamanaie-far, S. (2013). [Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR (Persian)]. Tehran: Danjeh Publication.
21. Olfson, M., Mojtabai, R., Merikangas, K., Compton, W., Wang, S., Grant, B., et al. (2016). Reexamining associations between mania, depression, anxiety and substance use disorders: Results from a prospective national cohort. Molecular Psychiatry, 22(2), 235-241. doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.64 [DOI:10.1038/mp.2016.64]
22. Proudfoot, J., Doran, J., Manicavasagar, V., & Parker, G. (2011). The precipitants of manic/hypomanic episodes in the context of bipolar disorder: A review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 133(3), 381-387. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.051 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.051]
23. Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2011). Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
24. Sammarco, A. (2016). Women's health issues across the life cycle. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
25. Schulze, T. G., Müller, D. J., Krauss, H., Gross, M., Fangerau-Lefèvre, H., Illes, F., et al. (2002). Further evidence for age of onset being an indicator for severity in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(2), 343-345. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(01)00306-8 [DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00306-8]
26. Schwartzmann, Â. M., Amaral, J. A., Issler, C., Caetano, S. C., Tamada, R. S., Almeida, K. M. d., et al. (2007). A clinical study comparing manic and mixed episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 29(2), 130-133. doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462006005000036 [DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462006005000036]
27. Van der Voort, T. Y., Van Meijel, B., Hoogendoorn, A. W., Goossens, P. J., Beekman, A. T., & Kupka, R. W. (2015). Collaborative care for patients with bipolar disorder: Effects on functioning and quality of life. Journal of Affective Disorders, 179, 14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.005]
28. Yazla, E., İnanç, L., & Bilici, M. (2012). [Relationship of sociodemographic features, clinical symptoms and functioning level among bipolar patients with manic episode and difference between these variables according to gender (Turkish)]. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 25(3), 221. doi: 10.5350/dajpn2012250304 [DOI:10.5350/DAJPN2012250304]
29. Young, R., Biggs, J., Ziegler, V., & Meyer, D. (1978). A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 133(5), 429-435. doi: 10.1192/bjp.133.5.429 [DOI:10.1192/bjp.133.5.429]
30. Whitbourne, S. K., & Halgin, R. (2014). Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspectives on psychological disorders with DSM-5 update. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.